Types of Nutrients and Their Functions


The nutrients required by the human body are the carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamin and Minerals. Different age group requires the different amount of nutrient in another world the daily value of the nutrient varies. It is essential to know about the nutrient needed by our body.

The nutrient value of the child, pregnant women, lactating women, mature individual greatly varies.

Major energy for the sustenance of our body is provided by carbohydrate followed by fat and protein.



Carbohydrate


Carbohydrate is essential to produce energy in the body. One gram of the carbohydrate provides 3.87 calories of energy per gram.

The absence of carbohydrate in the infant diet causes the disease often called Marasmus. Lean body characterizes this disease, and the children look like chronic starve. This is due to prolong deficiency of the carbohydrate in the diet. Carbohydrate is made up of carbon, hydrogen and Oxygen atom.

The human body can thrive on the energy from the protein and fat in absence of carbohydrate in the diet. Although extensive research is required to established the tenets.

Monosaccharide


Monosaccharides are the simple carbohydrate like the glucose in the sugar, fructose in fruits, Lactose in the Milk, etc. A monosaccharide is the building block of the carbohydrate. They are well known to provide rapid energy due to the simple molecule.

Disaccharide


Two joined monosaccharide molecule are called the disaccharide. These includes Sucrose, lactose, maltose, trehalose etc., are consider as intermediate between both.

Polysaccharide


The polysaccharide is the complex carbohydrate made up monosaccharide units.

Complex carbohydrate takes the time to digest so release slowly into the bloodstream. Due to this reason consuming complex carbohydrate is essential for healthy life.

Sources

Bread, Rice, Maize, Sugar, Yogurt, potato, fruits etc.,

Glycemic index


This is the index that provides information on the spike on the rapidity and magnitude glucose level of the blood. It means the food with the higher glycemic index quickly spike the blood glucose level is not considered suitable for the consumption.




Daily value


The daily value of the carbohydrate is 300 grams.

Protein


Protein is the essential for the vital activities of the body. Protein is used in the manufacture of the enzyme, hormone, bones, muscle, cartilage, skin, blood, etc. The amino acid is the building blog of the protein. An amino acid contains Nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

The chains of the amino acid are bound by the peptide bond and during the process of digestion, the enzyme breaks the peptide bond to facilitate the absorption.

Essential amino acid


This is the amino acid not synthesized by the body so the daily intake is essential.

Non-essential Amino acid


This is the amino acid synthesized in the body. So, the daily intake of the non-essential amino acid is not necessary.

Deficiency


The Deficiency of protein caused Kwashiorkor in the child. A sluggish child with retard mental growth marks this disease.

Sources


Mushroom, eggs, nuts, meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, pulses, etc.

Daily value


The daily value is estimated to be 50 grams.

Fat


Fat is the vital component of the body. Fat acts as the storage and sources of energy. Fat proves the energy and is essential to have adequate intake fat in the diet.

Categories


Unsaturated


Unsaturated fat is those with the carbon atom having one or more double bond.
Those with the multiple bonds are the polyunsaturated unit.

Saturated


Has no double bond between the carbon chains.

Deficiency


Deficiency of fat is associated with varied of the skin problems. The escape of the water from the skin by evaporation can accelerate leading to adverse consequences.



Daily value


The Daily value of the fat is 65 grams. Of which saturate fat comprise of 20 grams.

Vitamins


They can be broadly classified into two types lipid-soluble and water-soluble.

Lipid soluble vitamin


Lipid soluble vitamins are soluble in fat so the daily intake of this vitamin is not essential. Being the lipid soluble they are retained in the body for the significantly longer period of time. This includes vitamin like Vitamin A, D, E, and K.

Water-soluble vitamin


These are the vitamins that are soluble in water so the daily intake of the vitamin is essential for the normal functioning of the human body. It includes Vitamin C and B complex.

Lipid soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K


Vitamin A


This vitamin is widely known for its ability to produce good vision. It is essential for the growth and development of the immune system in the body. Zinc is essential for the absorption of vitamin A. Deficiency of zinc in diet can impair the absorption process of Vitamin A.



Deficiency


Deficiency of the vitamin A causes difficult in Night vision. Further, the decrease in immunity can be expected.

Sources


Vegetable, yellow color fruits, dairy product, sweet potato, lettuce, liver, fish, bell peppers, carrots, etc.

Daily value


The daily value is estimated to be 5,000 IU (International unit).

Vitamin D


Vitamin D is often known as the sunshine vitamin because they are made in human body upon exposure to the sunshine. Vitamin D is essential for the calcium absorption in the blood.

Deficiency


Deficiency of the vitamin D is characterized by skeletal deformities and soft bones refer to as Rickets.



Sources


Fish, cheese, egg yolks, orange juice, dairy product, soymilk, etc. Exposing the skin to sunshine can automatically synthesize the vitamin in the body.

Requirement


The daily requirement of the vitamin D is less than 530 International Unit (IU).

Vitamin K


Vitamin K is the fat-soluble vitamins that are essential for healing during blood clot. It is also essential for the synthesis of the protein. This is the least known vitamin, as they are not typically used in the dietary supplement. Bacteria present in the gastrointestinal track normally synthesizes this vitamin.

Deficiency


The deficiency of the vitamin K impairs clotting. This problem normally arises in the breastfed infant.

Sources


Almost all the green leafy vegetable has this vitamin, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, cereals, fish, meat, eggs, etc.

Doses


The requirement of vitamin K is estimated to be around 80 mcg (Micrograms) for an adult.

Water-soluble vitamin C and B complex


Vitamin C


Vitamin c is often referred to as the water-soluble vitamin. Vitamin C is also known as L-ascorbic acid. Due to the water-soluble nature, it gets excreted from the body easily. This requires the daily intake of this vitamin. This vitamin is well known for immunity booster and antioxidant properties.

Deficiency


Deficiency of vitamin c is marked by the disease known as scurvy which is marked by bleeding gums, dull skin, bleeding of the nose, immune impartation, splitting hair, etc.

Sources


Vitamin C is lush in citrus fruits like lemon, orange, broccoli, berries, tomato, papayas, and green leafy vegetable of various types.

Doses


The daily dose of vitamin C is around 60 milligram per day for the mature individual.

B complex


B complex is water-soluble vitamin so the daily intake of this vitamin is essential for the normal function of the human body.

Eight types of B vitamins are collectively referred to as B complex. They are B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9, and B12.

They are vital for the liberation of the energy in the body and perform the vital function in the body.

Vitamin B1


Technically B1 is referred to, as thiamine are essential for the adequate cellular functioning of the body. It is vital for producing energy in the body.

Deficiency


Causes beriberi marked by impairment of heart and the nerve especially in the children.

Sources


They are found in nuts, meat, beans, yeast, cereals, etc.

Daily value


It is recommended to take 1.4 milligrams of B1 for the adult every day.

Vitamin B2


Vitamin B2 is technically known as riboflavin. It acts as the strong antioxidant by preventing the adverse attack of free radical in the cell. Further, it helps in mentioning healthy blood cells, immunity booster and metabolism.

Deficiency


The deficiency of the vitamin B2 can produce server adverse health condition. Throat swelling, swollen tongue, skin cracks. Anemia, dermatitis, etc. can be observed.

Sources


The common sources are Almond, tomato, Mushroom, dairy product, liver, Meat etc.

Daily dose


The requirement of the vitamin B2 varies with the specific age group. Generally, it is estimated that the normal dose of the vitamin B2 is around 1.7 milligram daily.

Vitamin B3


Vitamin B3 is technically referred to as niacin. This is vital for lowering the sugar level in the blood, metabolism of the fat, and control of cholesterol in the blood.

Deficiency


Chronic deficiency causes the depression. The recurring symptoms are diarrhea, mental delusion, etc.

Sources


Peanuts, mushroom, poultry product, grains, liver, etc.

Doses


The dose recommended varies and estimated to be less than 20 milligrams per day.




Vitamin B5


Vitamin B5 is technically known as Pantothenic acid. They act as the coenzyme in the production of energy from the body. This is vital for the adequate mentioning of the fat and energy production. It is helpful in the control of cholesterol in the body.

Deficiency

These deficiencies are marked by series of symptoms like insomnia, stomach pain, fatigue, depression, burning feet, upper respiratory tract infection, etc. Although the deficiency of this vitamin is rare.

Sources


Diary product, salmon, mushroom, sunflower seed, liver, etc.

Dosage


It is recommended around 10 milligrams for the mature individual in the single day.

Vitamin B6


Vitamin B6 is technically referred to as pyridoxine. It is vital for the adequate maintenance of cognitive power, blood flow, movements, etc.

Deficiency


This is marked by the upset in the mood, depression, anxiety, swollen tongue, etc.

Sources


Cereals, poultry, vegetables, Fortified food with vitamin B6.

Daily Value


Around 2 milligrams is recommended for the mature individuals.

Vitamin B7


Vitamin B 7 is commonly referred to as Biotin. This has vital function to mention the healthy nervous system and metabolic process in the body.

Deficiency


Deficiency of vitamin B7 has the series of symptoms that can range from falling the hairs, red rash around different parts of the body. Neurological problems are marked by depression, hallucination, etc.

Sources


Avocado, broccoli, fish, meat, eggs, corn, barley, mushroom, nuts, potatoes, spinach, etc.

Dosage


Around 30 micrograms (Mcg) is recommended for the mature individual in the single day.

Vitamin B9


This vitamin technically refers to as Foliate or folic acid. It is essential for the formation of the new blood cells. This vitamin is vital for the prevention of heart disease and miscarriage during the early stage of pregnancy.

Deficiency


Common symptoms of the deficiency of vitamin are the loss of appetite, poor growth, Diarrhea, irritability, etc.

Sources


Avogadro, green leafy vegetable, okra, broccoli, asparagus, etc.

Dosage


Four hundred microgram is recommended every day.

Vitamin B12


Vitamin B12 is technically known as cobalamin. It is essential for the adequate functioning of the brain and the nervous system.

Deficiency


Loss of appetite, diarrhea, weakness, smooth tongue, vision loss, pale skin, etc.

Sources


Fish, poultry, dairy products, Eggs, forfeited foods; Generally, vitamin B12 is not present in the plant sources.

Dosage


Six to ten microgram per day for the mature individual is recommended.

Minerals


These are required in varied amount and perform the essential activities in life. They can be further categorized into two group Macro minerals and micro minerals.

Macro minerals


Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, Potassium, chlorine, and sulfur.

Micro Minerals


Iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium.

Five major minerals in the human body are Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and magnesium.

Calcium


Calcium is essential for the normal functioning of the bone. It is vital for the stabilizing of the blood pressure.  

Deficiency


Deficiency is often marked by disease such as osteoporosis.

Sources


Dairy products, meat, green leafy vegetables, cereals, Fish, almond.

Daily Doses


The daily dose of the calcium is one gram for the adult in the single day.

Phosphorous


This is found in conjunction with the calcium in the bone. It performs several functions of the body like the digestion, protein synthesis, repairing teeth and nervous system, balancing hormones, etc.  It comprises roughly one percent of the body weight.

Deficiency


Fragile bone is commonly known as rickets in children.

Sources


Dairy products, beans, nuts, whole grains, fruits and verity of vegetables.

Daily Doses


Like calcium, the daily recommended value of the phosphorous is 1 gram.

Potassium


Potassium is the mineral essential for the ion exchange. For the nerve impulse conduction, the sodium pump and the potassium pump needs to operate simultaneously. This is vital for the sustenance of the life.

Deficiency


Digestive disorder, high blood pressure, infertility, etc.

Sources


It is found in the variety of food sources like Banana, sweet potato, spinach, coconut water, potatoes, beans, spinach, etc.

Daily Doses


The daily recommended value of the Potassium is 3500 milligrams.

Sodium


Sodium is the vital nutrient required for the human body. Sodium helps in the control of blood pressure and maintenance of the muscles and nerves.

Deficiency


Deficiency of the sodium is characterized by Nausea, vomiting, fatigue, muscle spasm, and cognitive disorder. Although the deficiency of the sodium is rare in humans.

Sources


Table salt, dairy products, meats, etc.


Daily value


The daily Value (DV) of the sodium is around 2,400 milligrams.

Magnesium


Magnesium is vital to balance the calcium in the human body. It is essential for the formation of the bone. It is essential to mention healthy nerve, bone, and muscle. 

Deficiency


Weakness, Nausea, anxiety, calcium deficiency, etc.

Sources


Green leafy vegetable, whole grains, banana, dairy product. Chocolate, etc.

Daily Doses


It is estimated to be around 400 mg.

Iron


Iron is vital for the formation of hemoglobin. It is essential for the effective oxygen transfer in the body.

Deficiency


Deficiency of the iron causes the anemia marked by the decrease in the red blood cell in the blood.

Food source


Poultry, fish, meat, seafood, etc.

Daily Value


The daily value of the iron is estimated to be 18 milligrams.

Zinc


This is vital for boosting the immunity, during the cell division, growth, etc.

Source


Spinach, kidney beans, watermelon seeds,

Daily value


The daily value of the zinc is 15 milligram.

References:

http://www.veganhealth.org/b12/rec
https://www.amazon.com/dp/B074MD5ZLF/ref=sr_1_4?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1502151532&sr=1-4&keywords=vitamin+k2
  https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/


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